Monorepo Tools: A Comprehensive Comparison

Greg Foster
Greg Foster
Graphite software engineer

The monorepo approach to software development has gained significant traction, offering a range of benefits from simplified dependency management to unified versioning. However, managing monorepos can be complex, necessitating the use of specialized tools. Here, we compare several popular monorepo management tools to help you choose the right one for your needs.


Developed by Google, Bazel is known for its performance and scalability. It supports multiple languages and platforms, offering features like incremental builds and tests, as well as reproducibility. Bazel excels in large, multi-language repositories with complex build processes.

Gradle Build Tool

Gradle is another robust build tool that has gained popularity due to its flexibility and variety of plugins. It is particularly well-suited for JVM languages and provides native support for local build caches, which can significantly speed up build times.


Lage, created by Microsoft, is tailored for managing JavaScript monorepos. It supports task scheduling and running tasks in topological order, ensuring that dependencies are built first. Lage is integrated with NPM workspaces, making it a good fit for Node.js projects.


Lerna is a tool that optimizes the workflow around managing multi-package repositories with git and npm. It helps to version, track, and manage dependencies for npm packages within a monorepo. Lerna is often used in combination with other tools like Yarn Workspaces to enhance its capabilities​​.


Nx, developed by Nrwl, is not only a monorepo tool but a full-fledged suite of development tools offering an impressive array of features like advanced task orchestration, distributed task execution, and intelligent build caching. It can be used with any JavaScript framework and provides a holistic solution for monorepo management​​.

Pants Build

Pants is a build system designed for large monorepos that may contain multiple languages and frameworks. It offers features like fine-grained dependency management and is optimized for speed and reliability.


Microsoft's Rush is a scalable build orchestrator for monorepos, which can manage both JavaScript and non-JavaScript projects. It's designed to handle complex dependency structures and offers efficient incremental builds.


Turborepo, acquired by Vercel, is a high-performance build system for JavaScript and TypeScript codebases. It is designed to be fast and efficient, with features such as remote caching and optimized task execution.

Each of these tools brings its own set of features and philosophies to monorepo management. The choice of tool can depend on various factors, including the size of the codebase, the primary programming language(s), and specific needs related to build optimization and task management.

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