Monorepo vs Polyrepo

Greg Foster
Greg Foster
Graphite software engineer

When it comes to managing software development projects, two primary repository structures are prevalent: monorepos and polyrepos. Choosing the right structure is crucial for the efficiency and success of a development team. Below, we dive into an analysis of both approaches, discussing their advantages and challenges.

Monorepo: The Unified Approach

A monorepo, short for a monolithic repository, is a single repository that contains all the code and assets for multiple projects. This approach offers several benefits:

  • Simplified Dependency Management: A monorepo contains all code in one place, making it easier to manage dependencies and versions​​.

  • Atomic Commits Across Projects: Developers can make changes across multiple projects in a single commit, ensuring consistency and synchronicity​​.

  • Unified Build and CI/CD Pipeline: Monorepos often use a single build pipeline, simplifying the integration and deployment process​​.

  • Developer Mobility: Team members can move between projects without learning new repository management, which can enhance cross-functional collaboration​​.

However, monorepos can also present challenges, particularly as they scale up. They can require more sophisticated tooling to manage effectively and may lead to a slower pace due to their size and complexity​​.

Polyrepo: The Decentralized Approach

A polyrepo strategy, also known as a multiple repository approach, maintains a separate repository for each project or service. Key points in favor of polyrepos include:

  • Team Autonomy: Teams have the freedom to choose their tools, deployment schedules, and contribution policies​​.

  • Code Isolation: It prevents teams from inadvertently affecting other projects, which can reduce the risk of introducing bugs across the system​​.

Challenges of polyrepos often revolve around collaboration and integration:

  • Code Sharing Difficulties: Sharing common code across projects can become cumbersome, typically requiring a separate repository for shared libraries​​.

  • Dependency Management Complexity: Updating dependencies can be significantly more challenging, as each project needs to be considered independently​​.


The choice between monorepo and polyrepo structures is not clear-cut and often depends on the specific needs and capacities of a development team. Monorepos favor large-scale integration and simplification at the cost of potential complexity in tooling and build processes. Polyrepos, on the other hand, offer autonomy and isolation but can complicate dependency management and cross-team collaboration.

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